Why choose Polkadot technology among Polygon Avail, Cardano, and Starknet?

Advantages of Polkadot technology compared to Polygon Avail, Cardano, and Starknet

Source: PolkaWorld

With the continuous evolution of blockchain technology, different projects are exploring their own technological solutions. Avail, Cardano, and Starknet are three prominent examples, all of which have chosen the Polkadot technology stack to build their systems. Each project has its unique motivations and goals, but they all see the potential of Polkadot technology. This article will share why these projects chose the Polkadot technology stack and analyze their respective technical features and strategic intentions.


Avail is a modular DA layer that emerged from Polygon, focusing on providing data availability for all Rollups and appchains!

Avail uses the Nominated Proof of Stake from Polkadot, enabling Avail to support up to 1,000 validators and bringing effective reward distribution, reducing the risk of stake centralization through its multi-winner election method.

In addition, Avail also uses the BABE and GRANDLianGuai consensus mechanisms from the Polkadot SDK. BABE is primarily used for block generation. To ensure network activity, it coordinates with validator nodes to determine which node becomes the new block producer. GRANDLianGuai is responsible for the final confirmation of blocks. When more than two-thirds of validators confirm that a chain includes a specific block, GRANDLianGuai allows the confirmation of all previous blocks to that specific block. By combining these two mechanisms, Avail forms a hybrid ledger, enhancing the resilience of its network, enabling it to function normally in cases of temporary network partitions or a high number of node failures. There is always a trade-off between activity and security in any consensus mechanism. The combination of BABE and GRANDLianGuai helps Avail find a balance between the two.


At the Cardano Summit 2023, IOG founder & CEO Charles Hoskinson announced that after 4 years of research, they have chosen to use the Polkadot technology stack in their LianGuairtner Chain. IOG is using the Substrate stack as a foundation and integrating it with Cardano in a trustless manner, extending its capabilities. Additionally, IOG has contributed a set of composable Substrate components, fully unleashing the potential of the LianGuairtner Chain.

IOG: Input Output Global is a technology company focused on researching and developing blockchain technology. IOG is one of the main developers and contributors to the Cardano blockchain (similar to Polkadot and LianGuarirty), founded by Charles Hoskinson, who is also one of the co-founders of Ethereum, in 2015.

Charles Hoskinson states that IOG has long held a shared position with the modular technology developed by the Substrate team and respects it. For example, the BABE protocol borrows from Ouroboros Praos, validating the shared trust in foundational research. Adopting this modular approach will enable the LianGuairtner Chain to implement any consensus protocol, meet the requirements of Minotaur, and allow the LianGuairtner Chain to leverage specific combinations of resources for consensus. Therefore, the open-source code of Substrate complements Cardano’s technology stack and aligns with our shared vision for an interoperable blockchain world. IOG is actively developing its new LianGuairtner Chain framework, leveraging its global team of researchers, engineers, and developers, and is looking forward to exploring collaborative open-source opportunities in the blockchain space.


Madara is an open-source, decentralized Starknet sorter built using Substrate.

As a sorter, Madara plays a crucial role in the architecture of Starknet, handling transactions and generating blocks. On Starknet, sorters receive transactions from users and execute them on the second-layer network using the CAIRO virtual machine. The blocks created by Madara are later proven valid by the prover component. Madara has the potential to be used for implementing Ethereum-based L2 or even L3 solutions.

Substrate provides Madara with a modular, production-ready stack, with architecture and Rust features that allow for significant customization. It makes only a few assumptions and can be efficiently compiled to WASM. Apart from Polkadot, many chains and projects are now leveraging Substrate’s flexibility. Through years of real-world testing, Substrate even allows for changes in lower-level details such as consensus logic without hardcoded limitations.

Substrate offers a unique fusion of modularity, customization, production-readiness, and innovation, making it perfect for novel projects like Madara to build (ZK)Rollup infrastructures on Starknet. No other framework provides this ready-made blend.

Why did they choose Polkadot SDK?

1. Polkadot SDK uses the BABE + GRANDLianGuai consensus mechanism that strikes a balance between liveliness and security, addressing common issues in consensus models.

2. NPoS validator network: Polkadot’s Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS) allows for building a large validator network of up to 1000 validators. It mitigates the centralization problem in staking through effective reward distribution.

3. Advantages over Ethereum: Polkadot’s multi-chain vision has been in development and testing for around 5 years, earlier than Ethereum. Polkadot and Ethereum share similarities in many core elements such as shared sorters, composability, and rollups, corresponding to relay chains, XCM, and parallel chains in Polkadot, respectively.

4. Interoperability challenges with cross-chain standards and formats: Unique standards and formats between different chains bring challenges that require continuous tracking and understanding of upgrades. Polkadot addresses this problem through cross-chain message passing (XCM). XCM acts as a universal language, enabling every Polkadot SDK chain to communicate and understand each other.

5. Polkadot SDK has no dependence or preference for chains, makes no assumptions about consensus algorithms, and effectively solves the dilemma of shared sorters.

By analyzing Avail, Cardano, and Starknet, we can see that although these projects differ in their applications and goals, they have all chosen the Polkadot technology stack to meet their respective needs in unique ways. The choices made by these projects not only demonstrate the diversity and flexibility of the Polkadot technology stack, but also prove its wide applicability and strong potential in the blockchain field. As these projects continue to develop and mature, we look forward to seeing more innovative applications emerge and expect the Polkadot ecosystem to continue pushing the boundaries of blockchain technology.

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